Findings cited in all of the chapters came from electronic database searches of research articles published in English. Within those searches, priority was given to systematic literature reviews and to findings that were replicated by multiple controlled trials. However, many important issues in prevention, treatment, recovery, and health care systems have not yet been examined in rigorous controlled trials, or are not appropriate for such research designs. In these cases, the best available evidence was cited and labeled according to the reporting conventions published by the CDC:1
- Well-supported: Evidence derived from multiple controlled trials or large-scale population studies.
- Supported: Evidence derived from rigorous but fewer or smaller trials or restricted samples.
- Promising: Findings that do not derive from rigorously controlled studies but that nonetheless make practical or clinical sense and are widely practiced.
In cases in which evidence was based on findings of neurobiological research, the CDC standards were adapted.
A summary of the key findings appears at the beginning of each chapter. The key findings highlight what is currently known from available research about the chapter topic, as well as the strength of the evidence. As with the rest of the Report, the key findings are not intended to be exhaustive, but are instead considered the important “take-aways” from each chapter. Readers interested in a fuller discussion of the topics are encouraged to read the chapters in their entirety.
The following sections provide key findings of each of the chapters in the Report:
1. Puddy, R. W., & Wilkins, N. (2011). Understanding evidence Part 1: Best available research evidence. A guide to the continuum of evidence of effectiveness. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention